Literatur intraorganisationaler Netzwerke

Andrews, Basler, Coller 1999
Andrews, Steven; Basler, Carleen; Coller, Xavier: Organizational Structures, Cultures and Identities Overlaps and Divergences In: Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16. Jg. (1999), S. 213-235.
Existing work has shown that both organizational culture and informal structures affect how people behave in organizations and how organizations behave. Less work has been done to establish a link or casual association between these two elements themselves. In this paper, we explore the interaction of informal organizational structures and organizational cultures, identifying potential research streams which highlight the link between these two organizational phenomena, as well as their joint effect on outcomes. Specifically, we focus on the outcomes of organizational identities, job performance, power, reactions to turbulent change, and sense-making behavior.
Augier, Vendelo 1999
Augier, Mie; Vendelo, Morten: Networks, cognition and management of tacit knowledge In: Journal of Knowledge Management, 3. Jg. (1999), H. 4, S. 252-261.
Knowledge is a magic term with multiple connotations and interpretations. It is an issue of academic discourse as well as one with important implications for business institutions. How we define and frame knowledge carries implications for the way we try to manage knowledge in organizations and the de facto knowledge in organizations also carries implications for the knowledge existing in organizations. Within the last few decades, there has been an increasing interest in the tacit dimension of knowledge, which is perhaps hardest to manage, as it cannot be formally communicated, and is often embedded in the routines and standard operating procedures of the organization. Focuses on characteristics of this strategic important knowledge and how it can be organized in networks. Should be read as a case for paying more attention to knowledge and networks and how to manage these in organizations.
Barnes 1972
Barnes James: Social Networks o.O. (Addison-Wesley) 1972. (= Module in Anthropology)
Bartmess, Cerny 1993
Bartmess, Andrew; Cerny, Keith: Building Competitive Advantage through a Global Network of Capabilities In: California Management Review, 35. Jg. (1993), H. 2, S. 78-103.
Argue that the need for geographic proximity for work groups in organizations depend on five factors: Complexity of information, Required level of interaction, Similarity of background and expertise, Requirement for trust-based relationship, Concreteness of information. Gives an example (Applied Materials) for a strategy to expand to new markets. What functional units are best located close to the market (sales, mfg, design)
Bavelas, Barrett 1951
Bavelas, Alex; Barrett, Dermont: An Experimental Approach to Organizational Communication In: Personnel, 27. Jg. (1951), H. 3 (March), S. 366-371.
The improvement of industrial communication has come to be recognized generally as an important part of management's "unfinished business". However, management's growing interest in the subject of communication, implemented by the results of current research, gives promise of continuing improvement in this field. This article details some of the laboratory experiments in communication which are now in progress and their possibilities for further development.
Boos, Exner, Heitger 1992
Boos, Frank; Exner, Alexander; Heitger, Barbara: Soziale Netzwerke sind anders In: Organisationsentwicklung, 11. Jg. (1992), H. 1, S. 54-61.
Es geht um die Klärung des Netzwerkbegriffes im Zusammenhang mit sozialen Systemen wie Familien oder Unternehmen. Unsere Hypothese ist, dass soziale Netzwerke für formale Organisationen und Individuen an Bedeutung gewinnen. Allerdings werden Netzwerke in der Praxis deswegen wenig wirksam, weil ihnen ein unangebrachtes Organisationsverständnis übergestülpt wird. In der Folge sollen alternative Handlungsformen beschrieben werden.
Burt 1978
Burt, Ronald: Applied Network Analysis An Overview In: Sociological Methods & Research, 7. Jg. (1978), H. 2, S. 123-130.
Einführender Artikel zu einer Sonderausgabe von SM&R. Gute Einführung in Netzwerkansätze. Der positionale Ansatz untersucht die Struktur der Beziehungen und ordnet Personen zusammen, die ähnliche Beziehungen haben. Der relationale Ansatz ordnet Personen zusammen, die viel untereinander verbunden sind.
Carley 1999
Carley, Kathleen: On the Evolution of Social and Organizational Networks In: Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16. Jg. (1999), S. 3-30.
Over time, social and organizational networks evolve. These networks have a great deal of influence; for example, they affect the rate of information diffusion among individuals and within organizations, the ability of individuals to acquire and use information, and the speed, quality, and accuracy of organizational decisions. Consequently, the change or evolution of these networks can have dramatic social and organizational consequences. Most models of network evolution overlook the simple fact that networks exist within an ecology of networks. For example, the social network denoting who talks to whom is intertwined with each individual's cognitive network (the way in which each individual links ideas) and the transactive knowledge network (each individual's perception of the network linking people to their ideas). For example, within organizations, the authority or reporting network (who reports to whom) is interlinked with many other networks including the task structure (which tasks are connected to which), the task access structure (who is assigned to what task). Change in any part of this ecology of networks ultimately affects all other parts and the behavior of the entire system is a function of the specific way in which these networks are interlinked.
Clark 1999
Clark, Howard: The Growth of Canadian Knowledge Networks In: Journal of Knowledge Management, 3. Jg. (1999), H. 4, S. 304-307.
Canada's unique experience with formal knowledge networks over the last 20 years has brought together research and business partners in highly managed organizations. Describes the characteristics of these formal knowledge networks and indicates their success to date.
Coleman, Katz, Merzel 1957
Coleman, James; Katz, Elihu; Menzel, Herbert: The Diffusion of an Innovation Among Physicians In: Sociometry, 20. Jg. (1957), S. 253-270.
Untersucht die Diffusion einer neuen Behandlungsmethode unter Ärzten aus verschiedenen Regionen.
Dyer, Nobeoka 2000
Dyer, Jeffrey; Nobeoka, Kentaro: Creating and Managing a High-Performance Knowledge-Sharing Network The Toyota Case In: Strategic Management Journal, 21. Jg. (2000), S. 345-367.
Previous research suggests that knowledge diffusion occurs more quickly within Toyota's production network than in competing automaker networks. Toyota's network has solved three fundamental dilemmas with regard to knowledge sharing by devising methods to (1) motivate members to participate and openly share valuable knowledge (while preventing undesireable spillovers to competitors), (2) prevent free riders, and (3) reduce the costs associated with finding and accessing different types of valuable knowledge. Toyota's highly interconnected, strong tie network has established a variety of institutionalized routines that facilitate multidirectional knowledge flows among suppliers.
Engeström, Engeström, Vähäaho 1999
Engeström, Yrjö; Engeström, Ritva; Vähäaho, Tarja: When the Center Does Not Hold The Importance of Knotworking Aus: Chaiklin, Seth; Hedegaard, Mariane; Jensen, Uffe (Ed.) (Hrsg.): Activity Theory and Social Practice Aarhus (Aarhus University Press) 1999. S. 345-374.
Gilbert 1999
Gilbert, Dirk: Vertrauen in virtuellen Unternehmen Die Bedeutung von Vertrauen für die erfolgreiche Zusammenarbeit in virtuellen Unternehmen In: io Management, Jg. 1999, H. 12, S. 30-34.
Die Organisationsform "virtuelles Unternehmen" rückt immer stärker in den Mittelpunkt des Interesses. Unternehmen sehen in diesem Organisationsmodell eine Chance, sich schnell und effizient auf Kundenbedürfnisse einzustellen. Es gibt eine Vielzahl von Bedingungen, die erfüllt sein müssen, damit virtuelle Unternehmen erfolgreich funktionieren. Im Folgenden soll untersucht werden, ob und welche Bedeutung das gegenseitige Vertrauen der Partner für den Erfolg virtueller Kooperationen hat.
Granovetter 1973
Granovetter, Mark: The Strength of Weak Ties In: American Journal of Sociology, 78. Jg. (1973), H. 6, S. 1360-1380.
Granovetter hat in diesem Grundlagenartikel als erster auf die Bedeutung von schwachen Beziehungen hingewiesen. In seinen Augen ist es aufgrund der vielfältigen Verknüpfung innerhalb von Cliquen nicht so schlimm eine starke Beziehung abzubauen. Viel schwerwiegender ist des kappen einer schwachen Verbindung, da damit auch ganze Gruppen abgeschnitten werden können.
Greif 1989
Greif, Avner: Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade Evidence on the Maghribi Traders In: Journal of Economic History, XLIX. Jg. (1989), H. 4, S. 857-882.
This article examines the economic institution utilized during the eleventh century to facilitate complex trade characterized by asymmetric information and limited legal contract enforcability. The geniza documents are employed to present the "coalition", an economic institution based upon a reputation mechanism utilized by Mediterranean traders to confront toe organizational problem associated with the exchange relations between merchants and their overseas agents. The theoretical framework explains many trade-related phenomena, especially why traders utilized specific forms of business association, and indicates the interrelations between social and economic institutions.
Grunwald 1995
Grunwald, W: Nach der Schlankheitskur - Vertrauen aufbauen! In: Angewandte Arbeitswissenschaft, Jg. 1995, H. 143, S. 1-14.
Auf dem Wege zur schlanken Organisation, der häufig zu einem rigorosen Personalabbau führte, ging in vielen Unternehmen das in jahrelanger Zusammenarbeit aufgebaute Vertrauen verloren. Ohne Vertrauen gedeiht keine Zusammenarbeit zwischen Mitarbeitern sowie zwischen Vorgesetzten und Mitarbeitern. Für Führungskräfte und Mitarbeiter wird herausgearbeitet, wie wichtig Vertrauen für die Zusammenarbeit ist und wodurch sich vertrauenswürdige Menschen auszeichnen. Eine bewährte Handlungsstrategie zur Förderung zwischenmenschlichen Vertrauens wird vorgestellt.
Hannan, Freeman 1984
Hannan, Michael; Freeman, John: Structural Inertia and Organizational Change In: American Sociological Review, 49. Jg. (1984), H. April, S. 149-164.
Theory and research on organization-environment relation from a population ecology perspective have been based on the assumption that inertial pressures on structure are strong. This paper attempts to clarify the meaning of structural inertia and to derive propositions about structural inertia from an explicit evolutionary model. The proposed theory treats high levels of structural inertia as a consequence of a selection process rather than as a precondition for selection. It also considers how the strength of inertial forces varies with age, size, and complexity.
Hansen 1999
Hansen, Morton: The Search-Transfer Problem The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits In: Administrative Science Quarterly, 44. Jg. (1999), H. March, S. 82-111.
This paper combines the concept of weak ties from social network research and the notion of complex knowledge to explain the role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits in a multiunit organization. I use a network study of 120 new-product development projects undertaken by 41 divisions in a large electronics company to examine the task of developing new products in the least amount of time. Findings show that weak interunit ties help a project team search for useful knowledge in other subunits but impede the transfer of complex knowledge, which tends to require a strong tie between the two parties to a transfer. Having weak interunit ties speeds up projects when knowledge is not complex but slows them down when the knowledge to be transferred is highly complex. I discuss the implications of these findings for research on social networks and product innovation.
Harrington 1995
Harrington, Joseph: Cooperation in a One-Shot Prisoners' Dilemma In: Games and Economic Behavior, 8. Jg. (1995), H. 2, S. 364-377.
In this paper, we model social interactions which are characteristic of large economies. The key properties of this model are: (1) agents are randomly matched over time to engage in a Prisoners' Dilemma; (2) each agent routinely interacts with a proper subset of the other agents; and (3) each agent has highly imperfect information about the past conduct of other agents. For this setting, we show the optimality of a rule of thumb which does not descriminate between encounters with agents that one regularly meets and encounters with agents that one never expects to meet again. This rule of thumb generates cooperative behavior in all encounters.
Hastings 1993
Hastings, Colin: New Organization Growing the Culture of Organizational Networking Maidenhead (McGraw-Hill) 1993.
Hildebrand 1998
Hildebrand, Carol: Mapping the Invisible Workplace In: CIO Enterprise Magazin, Nr. 15.07.1998 vom 1998.
Forget org charts. How work really gets done depends on the efficiency of your company's social network. Based on the work of Karen Stephenson.
Kadushin, Brimm 1995
Kadushin, Charles; Brimm, Michael: Double Binds and Power Why Networking Runs into Trouble New York 1995.
Networked organizations are in vogue. Managers are urged to explore flexibility and informal alliances both within and across organizational boundaries. "Networking" is especially important in global organizations as managers seek to maximize local independence and yet achieve global synergies. Yet mangers are strong motivated to oppose informality at they very time they advocate it. This creates a "double bind" whose resolution is almost impossible and which poses a serious obstacle to organizational change. These dynamics are illustrated in a case study of a major High Tech global organization which attempted to introduce global non-hierarchical networking and stumbled in the process. Successful "networking" requires constant awareness of the built-in conflict between responsibility and flexibility.
Kaiser 1998
Kaiser, Karl-August: Human Networking in internationalen Unternehmen Bedeutung, Determinanten und Ansatzpunkte zur Förderung grenzenüberschreitender zwischenmenschlicher Kommunikation und Kooperation in internationalen intraorganisationalen Netzwerken Bamberg (Difo-Druck) 1998.
Kaiser gibt eine sehr gute Übersicht über das Thema Human Networking. Neben mehreren Definitionen stellt er auch eine Klassifizierung vor.
Krackhardt 1994
Krackhardt, David; Hanson, Jeffrey: Informelle Netze Die heimlichen Kraftquellen In: Harvard Business manager, Jg. 1994, H. 1, S. 16-24.
Leavitt 1951
Leavitt, Harold: Some Effects of Certain Communication Patterns on Group Performance In: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46. Jg. (1951), S. 38-50.
Ausführliche Beschreibung eines Versuchs zur Kommunikation zwischen fünf Personen. Untersuchung, welchen Einfluss die Kommunikationsstruktur auf richtige bzw. falsche Ergebnisse hat, welcher Zeitbedarf, etc.
Leimkühler 1996
Leimkühler, Claudia: Ist die öffentliche Kritik am deutschen Aufsichtsratssystem gerechtfertigt? In: Die Wirtschaftsprüfung, 49. Jg. (1996), H. 8, S. 305-313.
Lin, Dayton, Greenwald 1978
Lin, Nan; Dayton, Paul; Greenwald, Peter: Analyzing the Instrumental Use of Relations in the Context of Social Structure In: Sociological Methods & Research, 7. Jg. (1978), H. 2, S. 149-166.
Employing a variation of the Small World technique for tracing social relations in the context of a larger social structure, the instrumental uses of social relations are examined in terms of the prestige and types of relations characteristic of participants in the search process. The results show that successful chains tend to involve participants of higher occupational prestige as the chains progress before "dipping" down toward the target prestige level at the last link. Also, the successful chains tend to utilize weak and infrequent social relations rather than strong and frequent social relations.
Aufgabe der Untersuchung war die Übertragung von eines Informationspaketes innerhalb eines städtischen Gebietes zwischen verschiedenen sozialen Schichten. Dabei waren die Ketten erfolgreicher, die zunächst Personen auf einem Übersichtniveau (hohe Schicht) benutzen und dann kurz vor Schluß auf eine geeignete soziale Ebene zu bringen. Dabei wurden von den erfolgreichen Ketten häufiger schwache Verbindungen benutzt.
Monnoyer-Longé, Mayère 1994
Monnoyer-Longé, Marie-Christine; Mayère, Anne: Networks in Knowledge-Intensive Firms In: Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 85. Jg. (1994), H. 4, S. 303-310.
Is a network a sufficient concept as a model of growth for consultancy firms? To answer this question, the article examines the current functioning of networks created by SMF and the opportunity that could arise from this type of structure in a sluggish economic environment. Networks appear to be an adequate means to satisfy the customers' demand both in terms of competencies and availability in an increasingly competitve world. This study also shows the limitations of networks as it reveals that exchanges of competencies are mostly effected between financially organized groups. The study relies on an investigation involving 350 consultancy firms in six European countries.
Nardi, Whittaker, Schwarz 2000
Nardi, Bonnie; Whittaker, Steve; Schwarz, Heinrich: It's Not What You Know, It's Who You Know Work in the Information Age 2000. Internet.
We discuss our ethnographic research on personal social networks in the workplace, arguing that traditional institutional resources are being replaced by resources that workers mine from their own networks. Social networks are key sources of labor and information in a rapidly transforming economy characterized by less institutional stability and fewer reliable corporate resources. The personal social network is fast becoming the only sensible alternative to the traditional "org chart" for many everyday transactions in today's economy.
Popielarz 1999
Popielarz, Pamela: Organizational Constraints on Personal Network Formation In: Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16. Jg. (1999), S. 263-281.
I present a structural explanation of a pair of striking patterns found in personal networks. For most dimensions of social difference (e.g., age, sex, race, religion, education), people tend to associate with others who are similar to themselves. The pervasive nature of this pattern, called homophily, begs the question why we do not observe more personal network ties between dissimilar people. I show how a theory addressing this pattern, called heterophily, helps explain who benefits and who loses in stratification processes, and contributes to research on social capital, organizational diversity, and civic integration. The basic structural understanding of heterophily stresses that we meet network contacts through organizational participation. As a result, an organization's demographic mix affects a member's opportunity to form network ties with dissimilar others. I draw on evolutionary organizational dynamics in order to add to this understanding in two ways. First, the position of the organization within its environment modifies the relationship between organizational heterogeneity and network heterophily. Second, since people typically belong to many organizations, it is the combination of organizations to which a person belongs that determines the overall level of heterophily in her network. The paper includes several hypotheses resulting from the discussion.
Prusak 1999
Prusak, Larry: Making Knowledge Visible In: Financial Times, Nr. 6; Mastering Information Management vom 08.03.1999.
Cynics argue that knowledge management is impossible: knowledge is invisible stuff that resides in people's heads, whereas management deals with what is tangible and measurable. But this conclusion is too stark, says Larry Prusak; after all, we value many things without expecting to be able to measure their value. More importantly for KM, knowledge in companies can be made visible if we focus on knowledge activities, outcomes and investments. Analysing these three manifestations of corporate knowledge is a critical step for companies that want to create, share and apply it. Activities include networks of experts (which can be mapped by network analysis software to benefit the whole organisation), pronouncements by senior management, and incentive schemes that reward knowledge sharing. Outcomes include things such as patents, product launches and cycle-time reductions; however, knowledge managers need to make explicit the connection between these and knowledge activities. Finally, knowledge investments - in training, for example, or groupware - reveal the importance that companies attach to different sorts of knowledge.
Riordan, Griffeth 1995
Riordan, Christine; Griffeth, Rodger: The Opportunity for Friendship in the Workplace An Underexplored Construct In: Journal of Business and Psychology, 10. Jg. (1995), H. 2, S. 141-154.
This paper hypothesized and tested a theoretically-based model of the relationship between perceived friendship opportunities in the workplace and work-related outcomes. The empirical findings are based of the survey responses of 174 employees in a small electric utility. Results indicate that employees' perceptions of friendship opportunities in the workplace have direct effects on job involvement and job satisfaction, as well as indirect effect on organizational commitment and intention to turnover. Management implications of friendship opportunities and social features within the workplace are discussed.
Roistacher 1974
Roistacher, Richard: A Review of Mathematical Methods in Sociometry In: Sociological Methods & Research, 3. Jg. (1974), H. 2, S. 123-171.
Überblick über die mathematischen Verfahren, die hinter der Netzwerkanalyse stehen. Einführung in Matrizen und deren Berechnung und Beschreibung von Computerprogrammen.
Rosenstiel, Molt, Rüttinger 1986
Rosenstiel, Lutz von; Molt, Walter; Rüttinger, Bruno: Organisations-Psychologie 6. Auflage Stuttgart (Kohlhammer) 1986.
Schreyögg, Papenheim-Tockhorn 1994
Schreyögg, Georg; Papenheim-Tockhorn, Heike: Kooption und Kooperation Eine Längsschnittstudie zu Stabilität und Motiven personeller Verflechtungen zwischen deutschen Kapitalgesellschaften In: Die Aktiengesellschaft, 39. Jg. (1994), H. 9, S. 381-390.
Schwertfeger 1998
Schwertfeger, Bärbel: Einfach zuhören In: Wirtschaftswoche, Nr. 37 vom 3.09.1998.
Mentoren-Programme helfen Nachwuchskräften, sich wirklich zu Leistungsträgern zu entwickeln.
Sharp 1997
Sharp, John: Communities of Practice A Review of the Literature 1997
Literaturangaben und Kurzbeschreibungen zu Informellen Netzwerken und CoPs.
Die wirkliche Arbeit in Unternehmen wird in informellen Netzwerken getan. Das können auch kompetenzübergreifende Teams sein.
Können diese iN, CoPs auch virtuell existieren oder sogar größer werden? Ja, aber direkter Kontakt ist immer die Basis.
Online Foren und Mailing Lists können viele gleichgesinnte Personen zusammenbringen, eine Community ist es aber erst, wenn die Gruppe über eine gewisse Zeit besteht. Erfolgreiche CoPs schaffen es, die individuellen Beiträge auf ein gemeinsames Ziel auszurichten.
Stephenson 1995
Stephenson, Karen: The Formation and Incorporation of Virtual Entrepreneurial Groups In: Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 19. Jg. (1995), H. 3 (Spring), S. 35-52.
This article argues that recognition of anomaly in organizations is socially organized through the formation of virtual entrepreneurial groups. The process of group formation and incorporation within the organization is described. The new group, e.g. a virtual group, is a mobile strategic position within an existing organization. Case data is drawn from a two-year observational period in a firm which underwent a major reorganization. A mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies is used to describe the adjustment of this new group with existing groups before and after reorganization. Differences in inter- and intracommunication and work patterns are discussed.
Stephenson 1998
Stephenson, Karen: What Knowledge Tears Apart, Networks Make Whole 1998.
Every organization has a wealth of knowledge stored in the memories and intuitions of its employees. This tacit knowledge is shared through formal and non-formal networks which bond and motivate people within the organization. Karen Stephenson goes at the importance of trust in the creation of such networks and explains why managers must harness the power of networks to efficiently guide innovation and change.
Stephenson, Haeckel 1997
Stephenson, Karen; Haeckel, Stephan: Making a Virtual Organization Work In: Zurich Insurance - Focus, 1997, H. 21, S. 26-30.
What do clan, tribal and corporate organizational structures have in common? Among other things, they are all forms that require a degree of trust among their members to function successfully. Operationalizing trust in today's global organizations brings an extra challenge: creating authentic dialogue to successfully navigate the real world of a virtual world.
Beschreibt die Unzulänglichkeit von starren Hierarchien in der heutigen Wirtschaft und stellt Netzwerke als Alternative dar. Dabei ist Vertrauen besonders wichtig, was besonders bei multinationalen Netzwerken schwierig herzustellen ist.
Storck, Hill 2000
Storck, John; Hill, Patricia: Knowledge Diffusion through 'Strategic Communities' In: Sloan Management Review, 41. Jg. (2000), H. 2, S. 63-75.
Describes Xerox Corporation's transition experience from a proprietary information technology infrastructure to an industry standard, arguing that the existing community was a more effective infrastructure management strategy. Examination on how other firms might replicate Xerox's success; Illustration on how strategic communities create value for the sponsoring organizations; Conclusions.
Versucht, die Mischung aus Cop und Arbeits-Team als eigenständige Form zu charakterisieren. Merkmale für CoP: Freiwillige Teilnahme, weitgehende Selbstorganisation, etc. Merkmale für Arbeits-Team: Von oben aufgesetzt, Konkrete Aufgabe.
Es gibt sechs Prinzipien für effektive Strategische Communities:
1. Offene und flexible Interaktion ermöglichen
2. Auf einer gemeinsamen Organisationskultur aufbauen
3. Gemeinsamkeiten herausstellen
4. Gemeinsames Lernen fördern
5. Wissensaustausch in die Arbeitsweise verankern
6. Eigenständigkeit gegenüber der Gesamtunternehmung bewahren.
Swan, Newell, Scarbrough u.a. 1999
Swan, Jacky; Newell, Sue; Scarbrough, Harry u.a.: Knowledge management and innovation: networks and networking In: Journal of Knowledge Management, 3. Jg. (1999), H. 4, S. 262-275.
Begins with a critical review of the literature on knowledge management, arguing that its focus on IT to create a network structure may limit its potential for encouraging knowledge sharing across social communities. Two cases of interactive innovation are contrasted. One focused almost entirely on using IT (intranet) for knowledge sharing, resulting in a plethora of independent intranets which reinforced existing organizational and social boundaries with electronic "fences". In the other, while IT was used to provide a network to encourage sharing, there was also recognition of the importance of face-to-face interaction for sharing tacit knowledge. The emphasis was on encouraging active networking among dispersed communities, rather than relying on IT networks. Argues for a community-based model of knowledge management for interactive innovation and contrasts this with the cognitive-based view that underpins many IT-led knowledge management initiatives.
Tichy, Fombrun 1979
Tichy, Noel; Fombrun, Charles: Network Analysis in Organizational Settings In: Human Relations, 32. Jg. (1979), H. 11, S. 923-965.
This article sets out to reinforce and further develop an emerging paradigm: social network analysis, which represents social structure in terms of relationships (ties) between social objects. Not all the social objects are directly linked, and objects may be connected by multiple relationships of affect, influence, information, or goods and services. Network analysis deals with the types and patterns of relationships, and the causes and consequences of these patterns. The article applies the paradigm to the study of organizational structure by both developing theoretical constructs and presenting methodology for carrying out social network analysis in organizations. An analysis of three organizations from the Aston Study is presented using social network analysis to test propositions about differences between mechanistic and organic structures.
Tichy, Tushman, Fombrun 1979
Tichy, Noel; Tushman, Michael; Fombrun, Charles: Social Network Analysis For Organizations In: Academy of Management Review, 4. Jg. (1979), H. 4, S. 507-519.
This article introduces the social network approach - its origins, key concepts, and methods. We argue for its use in organizational settings and apply the network approach in a comparative analysis of two organizations.
Wenger 1999
Wenger, Etienne: Learning as Social Participation Why we must change our assumptions about how we learn and share knowledge In: Knowledge Management Review, 1999, H. 6, S. 30-33.
Learning is now the source of competitive advantage, but most of our assumptions about learning are based of institutionalized teaching and training outside the context of our daily lives. Etienne Wenger says that until we change the way we think about learning, we won't make the required impact for change.
Wiswerde 1992
Wiswerde, Günter: Gruppen und Gruppenstrukturen Aus: Frese, Erich (Hrsg.): Handwörterbuch der Organisation Stuttgart (Poeschel) 1992. S. 735-754.
I. Begriff und Bedeutung der Gruppe.
Gruppenformen: Kleingruppe, Großgruppe; Eigengruppe, Fremdgruppe; instrumentelle Gruppe, sozio-emotionale Gruppe; formelle Gruppe, informelle Gruppe.
II. Gruppenstruktur.
Dimensionen der Gruppenstruktur: Soziometrische Struktur (Affektstruktur); Kommunikationsstruktur; Rollen- und Statusstruktur; Macht- und Autoritätsstruktur.
III. Gruppenprozesse.
Interaktion in Gruppen; Leistung in Gruppen
Wüthrich, Philipp 1998
Wüthrich, Hans; Philipp, Andreas: Virtuell ins 21. Jahrhundert!? Wertschöpfung in temporären Netzwerkverbünden In: HMD - Theorie und Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik, Jg. 1998, H. 200, S. 9-24.
Pionierunternehmen, wie z.B. Nintendo, Dual, Euregio, Cargolifter und Rauser Advertainment lassen erkennen, wie durch eine Virtualisierung der Wertschöpfung strategische Wettbewerbsvorteile generiert werden können. Im Zentrum steht dabei eine intelligente Verknüpfung weltweiter best-in-class-Ressourcen.
Dieser Beitrag schärft das begriffliche Grundverständnis der Virtualität im betriebswirtschaftlichen Kontext und zeigt das breite Spektrum alternativer Erscheinungsformen im der Praxis auf. Ausgehend von der Erläuterung der Funktionsweise virtuell agierender Pionierunternehmen wird der Leser ermuntert, sein eigenes Virtualisierungsprofil zu entwickeln.
Begriffsklärung "Virtualität" und Autorenübersicht. Als Hauptpunkt wird ein "Kontinuum der Virtualität" aufgestellt, das verschiedene virtuelle Organisationsformen unterscheidet und erläutert. Eine Checkliste mit verschiedenen Dimensionen dient der Einordnung des eigenen Unternehmens und gibt Anhaltspunkte für eigene strategische Entscheidungen..
Die Dimensionen: Bedarf an ergänzenden Ressourcen und Fähigkeiten; Netzwerkpartner; Netzwerkarchitektur; Netzwerkdauer; Netzwerkpartnerbeziehung; Netzwerksteuerung; Netzwerkziele

last update: 01-03-27